JUMA (FRIDAY PRAYER)
Juma is Farz-e-Ain meaning obligatory on all individuals. It's obligation is more important than Zohr and those who reject it is a Kafir [Durr-e-Mukhtar, etc.]. It is quoted in the Hadith that those who miss three Jumas has thrown Islam behind them, and he is a hypocrite and is disassociated from Allah [Ibne-Khuzaima, Imam Shafaee].
- Rule: To pray Juma there are six conditions and if one of these is not fulfilled then the Juma will not count.
Conditions of Juma
- Town or outskirts of town
- Leadership (King)
- Time of Zohr
- Khutba - (Speech)
- Acceptance by majority.
First Condition - Town or Outskirts of town
Town means a place which has many streets and a shopping centre or markets etc. It also has a district and villages belonging to that district. There must also be a judge or mayor belonging to it whom by his power or authority can ensure people go on trial and justice is upheld, even though he may himself be injustice or does not uphold the law. Outskirts of town mean them places which are constructed because of the town, such as a cemetery, stables for horses, barracks for the army and courts and these are on the outskirts of the town to give service to the town and Juma is allowed there. Therefore the Juma should be either prayed in the city or town or the outskirts of the town, it is not allowed in the villages [Guniya, Bahar-e-Shariat]. Rule: For the town, it's judge or mayor needs to reside there and if he travels and goes elsewhere that place visited will not become a town and the Juma would not be allowed there [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar-e-Shariat]. Rule: If a person who lives in a village goes to a town and intends to stay there that day then the Juma is Farz for them.
Multiple places in a town where Juma can be prayed
- Rule: Juma can be performed in a town in multiple locations and anywhere within the town, whether the town is large or small and the Juma can be in two Mosques or more [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.]. However, without reason Juma should not be prayed in many different locations because Juma is a sign of Islam and is a congregation of all Jamaats and if it is spread about in different Mosques then the same show does not remain as you would get in one large gathering and it is because of the sign of all Muslims uniting that it has been allowed and so the gathering should not be split and a Juma should not be done in every street or area unnecessarily.
Who should lead the Juma ?
There is a very important point that people have not been paying attention to and have been treating Juma like other normal Namaz and whoever wishes has started a new Juma and whoever wishes they have lead it, this is not allowed, because leading the Juma is the duty of the king of Islam or his deputies and wherever there is not Islamic rule then the highest qualified scholar who is from the correct faith of Ahl-e-Sunnat Wa Jamaat is the person who substitutes the Sultan of Islam and ensures that the rules of Islamic law are followed should lead the Juma, and without his permission the Juma cannot be performed. If this is not possible then the person who people choose as their Imam has to lead the Juma prayers. Also whilst the majority of people being present some of them cannot make a person an Imam or four people decide on an Imam, this type of Juma is not proven anywhere [Bahar-e-Shariat].
Second Condition - King or leader
Leader means a Sultan of Islam or his deputy whom the Sultan has given authority to lead the Juma prayers. Even if the Sultan is a ferocious person or a good person he can lead the prayers. If a person has forced himself into power and according to Shariat he has no right of becoming an Imam, such as he is not a Qureshi or does not fulfil any other condition he can still call for juma prayer [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar etc.].
Third condition - Time
The time of Juma is the time of Zohr, meaning the Juma should be prayed in the time that Zohr is prayed and if in Juma Namaz you got upto praying Attahiyat and the time of Asr started then the Juma Namaz becomes void and you would have to pray the Qaza of Zohr.
Fourth Condition - Khutba (Speech)
- Rule: The condition for the Khutba of Juma is that it is done within the time and is done before the Juma Namaz. It must be performed in front of such a Jamaat which is necessary for Juma and that is a minimum of three men except for the person performing the Khutba. It should be so loud that the people nearby can hear it and if this is not the case or the Khutba is prayed before midday or after the Namaz or prayed alone or prayed in front of women or children then in all these situations the Juma will not count.
- Rule: If between the Khutba and Namaz there is a big gap then that Khutba would not be sufficient [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar-e-Shariat].
What is known as a Khutba
- Rule: Khutba is the remembrance of Allah and therefore even if once 'Alhamdo Lillahi' or 'Subhanallahi' or 'La ila Ha illallah' is prayed, then the Farz would be fulfilled, but to make the Khutba that short is Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].
- Rule: It is Sunnat to pray two Khutbas and they should not be very long and if they both together are longer than 'Tawal-e-Mufassal' then it is Makrooh especially in the winter [Guniya, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
Things that are Sunnat in the Khutba Rule:
Rule: The things that are Sunnat in the Khutba is;
It is better to start the Second Khutba like this:
- The Khateeb (person praying the Khutba) to be clean and stood up.
- Before the Khutba the Khateeb to be sat down.
- The Khateeb to be stood on the Mimbar facing the audience and with his back towards the Qibla.
- The audience to be paying attention to the Imam.
- To pray 'A'oozubillah' quietly before the Khutba.
- To pray with your own voice so loud that the people can hear.
- To start with 'Alhamdo'.
- To praise Allah Subhana Wa Ta'ala.
- To bear witness of Allah's monotheism and to bear witness the prophet-hood of the Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam.
- To send the Holy Prophet Durood.
- To pray at least one verse of the Holy Quran.
- In the first Khutba to be words of guidance and advice and in the second Khutba to contain praise and witness and to repeat the Durood and to pray for other Muslims.
- Both Khutbas to be light.
- To sit between the two Khutbas for a length of three verses.
- It is Mustahhab to lower the voice for the second Khutba slightly less than the first one and to remember the great Sahhabis and Hazrat Hamza and Hazrat Abbas Radi Allaho Ta'ala Anhum.
"Alhamdo Lillahi Nahmadaho Wa Nasta'eenuhu Wa Nastaghfiruhu Wanu'Minu Bihi Wanatawakkalu Alaihi Wa Na'uzubillahi Min Shururi Anfusina Wa Min Sayyi Aati A'malina Mayyahdihillahu Fala Mudillalah Wamayyudlillhu Falaa Haadiyalah Wanash Hadu An La ilaha illallahu Wahdahu La Sharika Lahu Wa Nash Hadu Anna Sayyadina Wa Maulana Muhammadan Abduhu Wa Rasooluh"If a person is in front of the Imam then he should face the Imam and if he is either on his left or right side then he should turn towards the Imam. It is better to be close to the Imam, however, it is not allowed to cross other people's necks to get there. Although if the Imam has not yet stood up for the Khutba and there is space near the front then it is allowed to go there and if the Imam has already started the Khutba and you then enter the Mosque, then you should sit in the nearest space or corner available. You should sit whilst listening to the Khutba as you sit in Qaidah in Namaz [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Guniya and Bahar].
- Rule: To praise and exalt a king of Islam which he does not acquire is Haram, for example to call him 'the one who owns people's lives' etc. because this is a lie and is Haram [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
- Rule: Not to pray a verse of the Quran in the Khutba or not to sit between two Khutbas or for the Khateeb to speak whist praying the Khutba is Makrooh. However, if the Khateeb promoted good or forbid evil then there is no harm [Alamgiri, Bahar].
- Rule: To pray the Khutba in another language except Arabic or to mix another language with Arabic is against the Sunnat and is not preferred. Also poetry should not be prayed in the Khutba even if it is in the Arabic language. If the a couple of verses of poetry is said which is about advice and is prayed sometimes then there is no harm [Bahar-e-Shahat].
Fifth Condition - Jamaat
Except for the Imam there must be at least another three men, otherwise the Juma will not count [Hidaya, Shareh Wiqaya, Alamgiri, Qazi Khan].
- Rule: If there are three servants or three travellers or ill people or uneducated or dumb Muqtadees then the Juma will still count. If there are only women or children present then the Juma will not count [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
Sixth Condition - Acceptance of all
This means that the doors of the mosque are opened so that anyone wishing could attend the Juma, no-one must be stopped or prevented. If in a major Mosque (Jamia Mosque) when everyone gathers, the doors were locked behind then the Juma will not count [Alamgiri].
- Rule: If women are prevented from coming into the Mosque then it won't be against accepting all, as if they came there would be fear of trouble [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
Wajibs of Juma
There are eleven aspects that make Juma Wajib and if even one of these were not fulfilled then it is not Farz but even if he prayed the Juma it will count and in fact for an adult male who is sane it is better to pray the Juma and for a woman it is better to pray Zohr. The conditions are as follows;
- To be resident in the town or city.
- Juma is not obligatory on an ill person. The illness must be so bad that the person cannot go to the Mosque where Juma prayers are held or if he did go his illness would get worse or it would delay the illness from getting better [Guniya]. A very old person is treated in the same context as an ill person [Qazi Khan, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Fatahul Qadir].
- Rule: If a person is caring after an ill person and is aware that if he goes to pray Juma the ill person will be under risk and no-one else is available to look after them the for the carer, then Juma is not Farz [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
- To be free. Juma is not Farz on a slave and his master can forbid him [Alamgiri, Qazi Khan].
- Rule: He cannot forbid a worker or employee from going to pray Juma, however, if the Jamia Mosque is far away then he can dock some of his pay and the employee cannot appeal against it [Alamgiri].
- Juma is Farz on males, it is not Farz on females.
- To be an adult.
- To be sane. Both these conditions are not specifically for Juma but for all worship to be Wajib you must be an adult and be sane.
- To have sight. Juma is not Farz on the blind, however, it is Farz on the blind person who can walk around the streets without help or assistance and can reach the Mosque on his own accord [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].
- The person can walk and therefore is not handicapped. However, if he is lame but can walk to the Mosque, then Juma is Farz on him.
- Juma is not Farz on an imprisoned person who is in Jail. However, it is Farz for a person who has been imprisoned due to debt and is rich and therefore has the means to pay off the debt.
- To have fear. If a person has the fear of a king or thief or an oppressor or is worried that he will be imprisoned because he does not have the means to pay off a debt, then Juma is not Farz on them [Radd-ul-MohtarJ.
- If there is a fear of a storm or flood or snow or hurricane, meaning that it would cause you harm if you went out in this weather then Juma is not Farz.
- Rule: The Imamat of Juma can be performed by those males who can be an Imam in other Namaz, even if Juma is not Farz on them e.g. ill person, traveller, Slave etc. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Hidaya, Qazi Khan, Fatahul Qadir], meaning when the Sultan of Islam or his deputy or a person whom he has given authority, when they become ill then can still lead the Juma prayers or the person whom the above three have given authority to a person who is a slave or an ill patient or a traveller then they can become an Imam even though Juma is not Farz for them. If a person has been asked to become an Imam by the majority of the public and is worthy of being an Imam in other Namaz, can become Imam even though he may be a person for whom Juma is not Farz, but if a person decides on his own accord to become Imam without authority then the Juma will not count.
- Rule: If Juma is Farz on a person then it is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi to pray Zohr before the Juma prayers have been performed in the town.
- Rule: For an ill person or a traveller or a slave or for anyone for whom Juma is not Farz then for these it is also Makrooh to pray Zohr Namaz with Jamaat in a town whether it be before Juma prayers or after. In the same way if a person missed the Juma prayers then he should pray the Zohr Namaz alone without Azaan or Iqamat, as Jamaat is also not allowed for him [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
- Rule: The Ulema state that those Mosques where Juma is not held then they should be closed during Zohr time [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
- Rule: In a village on Fridays the Zohr Namaz should be prayed with Azaan, Iqamat and Jamaat [Alamgih, Bahar]. To go to Juma prayers early and perform Miswaak and to wear nice clean white clothes and to wear scent and use oil on your head and have your hair combed neatly is Mustahhab and to have a bath on Friday before Juma prayers is Sunnat [Alamgiri, Guniya etc.].
Some more Rules of Khutba
As soon as the Imam stands up for the Khutba all Namaz and Zikr and any type of conversation is forbidden. The only exception is that a Sahib-e-Tarteeb can pray his Qaza Namaz. If a person is praying a Sunnat or Nafl Namaz then they should finish it quickly [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar}.
- Rule: Those things which are Hara'n in Namaz such as eating, drinking, performing Salaam or replying to a Salaam etc. are also Haram in Khutba, even giving good advice and forbidding evil is also forbidden, however, the person praying Khutba can give good advice and forbid evil. When the Khutba is prayed then all those who are present must listen and remain quiet as this is Farz, and those people who are a distance away from the Imam and cannot hear must also remain quiet as this is Wajib on them. If you hear someone talking about something bad then you can indicate with your hand or head but to talk is not allowed [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
- Rule: In the state of Khutba you saw that a blind person is going to fall in a well or someone is going to get bitten by a scorpion then you can use your voice, however, if you can indicate to them then you must do this and hence talking will not be allowed [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
- Rule: If the Khateeb prayed for the Muslims then the people listening cannot lift their hands or say Ameen as this is not allowed. If they did this then they will have committed a sin. Whilst praying the Durood Sharif in Khutba for the Khateeb to look at his left and right side is Bid'at.
- Rule: If the Khateeb said the Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam's name then the people listening should pray the Durood in their hearts as it is not allowed to say it with their tongue and in the same way if they heard a Sahhabi's name to say Radi Allahu Ta'ala Annum with their tongue is not allowed and should be said in the heart [Durr-e-Mukhtar. Bahar etc.].
- Rule: Except for the Khutba of Juma to listen to other Khutbas is also Wajib such as Khutbas of Eids or Nikkah etc.
When is it Wajib to prepare and rush for Khutba ?
- Rule: As soon as you hear the first Azaan (One for Khutba) to prepare and rush for Khutba is Wajib and to stop your business as this is also Wajib, upto the extent that if you were shopping in the street then to continue is not allowed and it is worse and a big sin to shop inside the Mosque. If you were eating and you heard the Azaan for Khutba and you were afraid that if you continued eating then you would miss the Juma, then stop eating and go to the Mosque for Juma. Go for Juma io a relaxed and respectable way [Alarngiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
- Rule: When the Khateeb stands on the Mimbar then an Azaan should be said in front of him. This does not mean in front of him inside the Mosque as the Ulema of Fiqh have said it is Makrooh to call the Azaan inside the Mosque, so it must be done outside the Mosque (Jamaat Hall) [Alamgiri, Qazi Khan].
- Rule: The second Azaan should also be called loudly as it is a call for all and if someone did not hear the first then they should attend for the Khutba when hearing the second.
- Rule: Once the Khutba has finished the Iqamat should be called straight away without delay. To talk about worldly activities between the Khutba and Jamaat is Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
- Rule: The person that has prayed the Khutba should also lead the Namaz, not another. If another did lead the prayer then it will still count as long as he has been given the authority to lead.
- Rule: It is better to pray for Juma Namaz in the first Rakat the Surah-e-Juma and in the second Surah-e-Munafiqoon, or in the first 'Sabbihismi' and in the second 'Hal Ataaka', however, do not always pray this but change them sometimes.
- Rule: If you travelled on the day of Juma and was out of the city before midday then there is no harm, otherwise it is not allowed [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
- Notice. On the day of Juma the souls gather together, hence you should visit the cemetery on this day [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].