Allahumma Salli wa Sallim wa Barik 'ala Sayyidina Muhammadin Habeebik, wa Sayyidina Ibrahima Khaleelik, wa 'alaa Jami'i Ambiyaa'ik.
اَللّهُمَّ صَلِّ وَسَلِّمْ وَبَارِكْ عَلى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ حَبِيبِكَ وَسَيِّدِنَا اِبْرَاهِيْمَ خَلِيْلِكَ وَعَلى جَمِيْعِ اَنْبِيَائِكَ
"O Allah, send prayer and peace and blessing upon our Liegelord Muhammad, Your Beloved; and our Liegelord Abraham Your Friend; and upon all Your Prophets."
Originally Posted by Matt3i6
Islamically, its not important for us - anymore I mean - to determine whether a prophet-claimant is a prophet or not. Islam is founded on the fact that our Liegelord Muhammad, Sall-Allahu 'alayHi waSallam, is the Seal, the Last, of the Prophets and the Messengers. Therefore, anyone claiming to be a prophet after Him is either insane or a liar and should be dealt as such.
The Law of the Torah, which you quoted, was meant for the people at that time. It was important for the Children of Israel to recognize a Prophet when they saw one, considering the amount of Prophets Allah/God had decreed to be sent among them. However, we Muslims, being the final community raised be God, have no need to do so, as our Prophet is the Seal of the Prophets, God bless Him and greet Him with peace.
There are an abundant of Prophecies in the Qur'an, most dealing with immediate events that occurred during our Prophet's, God bless Him and greet Him with peace, worldly life-time. These include the Conquest of Persia by the Byzantines (Chapter 30 of the Qur'an) - in summary, during the rule of Emperor Heraclius, the Persians had practically destroyed the Byzantine Empire, and the whole world was expecting its imminent collapse. Yet Allah spoke through the Beloved Prophet, God bless Him and greet Him with peace, that the Byzantines (Ar-Rum, for which the Chapter 30 is named) would come back and defeat the Persians, within a span of 3-9 years.
Alif, Lam, Meem.
The Byzantines have been defeated
In the nearest land. But they, after their defeat, will overcome.
Within three to nine years. To Allah belongs the command before and after. And that day the believers will rejoice.
In the victory of Allah. He gives victory to whom He wills, and He is the Exalted in Might, the Merciful.
[It is] the promise of Allah. Allah does not fail in His promise, but most of the people do not know. [Qur'an 30:1-6]
The polytheists of Makkah (and practically anyone living at that time, except the Believers) found the Prophecy unbelievable, and as they were polytheists, sided with the polytheist Persians. The Muslims, being Monotheists, sided with the Christian Byzantines. Yet history bears witness that - within exactly the time-frame mentioned - the Byzantines regained all of their lost territory within a span of 3-9 years. The polytheists of Makkah were stupefied, while the believers rejoiced at the truth of the prophecy of the Seal of the Prophets, God bless Him and greet Him in peace, and the victory of their Abrahamic brethren.
627 - 622 = 5 = "within three to nine years" - the Arabic word, used in the Qur'an, is bid‘, which usually means "between three and nine or ten years" [Tafsir al-Jalalayn], as is translated as "within three to nine years" in the English translation above.
Originally Posted by http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byzantine–Sassanid_War_of_602–628
This is just one example, the Conquest of Makkah by the Muslims (in Chapter 48) is another; it was also prophesied, and came to take place, exactly as was revealed: Certainly has Allah showed to His Messenger the vision in truth. You will surely enter al-Masjid al-Haram, if Allah wills, in safety, with your heads shaved and [hair] shortened, not fearing [anyone]. He knew what you did not know and has arranged before that a conquest near [at hand]." [Qur'an 48:27]
I believe within two years of the above prophecy, the Muslims conquered Makkah, without any war ("in safety"). All of polytheist Makkah surrendered without putting up a fight, intimidated by the raw strength of the Muslim army (there was a period of peace before this during which many people who came into contact with Islam accepted it as the truth, so the Muslim population skyrocketed). Then, inspired by the tremendousness and vastness of the Prophetic Ethos, they all ultimately surrendered, this time to God and His Messenger, and became Muslims. This was because God's Messenger, God bless Him and greet Him in peace, although He could have taken revenge for all the persecutions that He and His Community had suffered for His earlier 13 years in Makkah; all His Blessed Relatives, Friends and Companions that He had lost because of the wars with these pagans during His later 10 years in Madinah; yet, He announced a general amnesty, and forgave everyone. In the end, it was the Beauty, in Ethos and Appearance, of the Messenger of God, God bless Him and greet Him in peace, that caused Islam to overtake all Arabia.
Islamic tradition is rich with extra-Qur'anic prophecies. The Hadith literature is full of prophecies which have come true; particularly those of the End Times. The Sayings and Teachings of the Prophet, God bless Him and greet Him in peace are called Hadiths, or Traditions, which are distinct from the Qur'an as the Qur'an is the literal Word of God - God Himself speaking - while the Hadiths are what the Prophet, God bless Him and greet Him in peace, spoke and taught upon the will of God. These are regarded as a non-recited revelation. Allah Most High says, ‘He does not speak out of (His own) desire. It is but revelation revealed (to Him).’ [53:3-4] These are rich with End Time prophecies most of which have come true.
I recommend you to read this detailed article:
The Truth of Islam, the Qur'an and the Prophet Muhammad, God bless Him and greet Him in peace (Sall-Allahu 'alayHi wa Sallam): SeekersGuidance - The Truth of Islam, the Qur’an, & the Prophet Muhammad (Peace and Blessings Be Upon Him) - Answers
Plus, that website, Seekers Guidance, is a good source for obtaining authentic Islamic information. You can ask questions there and expect an answer (usually within a week), from authentic Islamic scholars adhering to the Mainstream Islamic beliefs (Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Ja'amah - meaning "the People of the Prophetic Example, and the Largest Group of Muslims" - or Sunnis for short). I personally found them to be competent and qualified. So if you have further questions like this, I recommend that you ask them.
And Allah and His Messenger, God bless Him and greet Him with peace, know best.
Assalaatu Wassalaamu 'alayKa ya Sayyidi ya Rasul Allah. Sall-Allahu Ta'ala 'alayHi wa Aalihi wa Sah-bihi waSallam. Wal-Hamdulillahi Rabbil-'Alameen.